CCR199 - Annotated Bibiography

Baker, S. R. “Intrinsic, extrinsic and amotivational orientations: their role in university adjustment, stress, well-being and subsequent academic performance.” Current Psychology. September 9th, 2004. Accessed on November 27th, 2015.

This article analyzes the relationship between a student’s motivation and their academic performance in university studies. The author concludes that one’s motivation has an influence on their level of overall stress, however has no relation to their academic performance. A student’s academic performance was predicted by the subject’s study habits and academic performance prior to entering university (students who achieved higher grades before university generally had higher grades than students who achieved lower grades before university). The findings of this study are extremely insightful and can be generalized to all students; ones motivation to succeed is positively correlated with success. Additionally, if an individual embodies positive study habits and achieves high marks as a result of drive, or the motivation to succeed prior to University, these same habits are likely to persist into post-secondary study as well.

Battu, H., Belfield.C.R., Sloane.P.J. “How well can we measure over-education and its effect?” National Institute economic review. January 1st, 2000. Accessed November 27th, 2015.

This article illustrates three different aspects the concept of over education, over two different years of graduating classes. The first aspect the examined related to ways of identifying an overeducated worker; this can be done through various measurement techniques however each technique has no correlation with the others. The next aspect which was discussed was, “the effects of over-education on earnings and job satisfaction”, the authors concluded that these have the same effects and it is more commonly found in female employees than male. The final aspect, looked at how the job components of overqualified workers was actually greater and more difficult than the job components of average workers of the same job title. This article highlights the measures to identify an overeducated employee as well as provides many statistics about the topic which are extremely insightful for readers. The information provided by this article gives readers that additional knowledge about overeducated people who may work with them or knowledge which can be taken as advice to avoid working in jobs which you are overeducated.

Calfee, Robert C., Macan T.H., Shahani. C, Dipboye. R.L., and Phillips. A.P. 1990. "College Students’ Time Management: Correlations with Academic Performance and Stress." Journal of Educational Psychology. December 1990. Accessed November 27th, 2015.

This article analyzes the relationship between time management and academic success in university students. However, from their survey data, the authors also determined a relationship between effective time management and less stress and greater life satisfaction amongst students. The findings of this article also mirror, and confirm, those similar studies; time management does in fact have a positive effect of the academic performance and overall quality of life experienced by university/college students. Having this knowledge and being a relatively new student within the university, this is something that I find the most challenging yet the most beneficial, as the hypothesis does hold true to myself and many others.

Holtzman. D.M & Kraft. E .M. “Skills needed in the 21st Century Workplace: A Company Feedback from Undergraduate Business Alumni and Employers with a National Study. Business Education & Admisistration.  2011. Accessed November 27th, 2015.

This article discovers the top 5 characteristics to have within the workplace, a survey answered by both employees and employers of a company. They found that some of these characteristics included; time management, communication skills, cooperation when working with others and knowledge of global/local news. Reading this article again provided me with additional “tips” and takeaways on skills which I didn’t know were so important to possess (e.g.. knowledge of global/local issues). This allows me to build on these skills while I still have the chance before I am forced to enter the world of careers.

Irving, Greg, Cathy Faye, and Donald Sharpe. 2008. "Academic Motivation in University: The Role of Basic Psychological Needs and Identity Formation." Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue Canadienne Des Sciences Du Comportement. October 2008. Accessed on November 27th, 2015.

This article compares the relationship between “psychological needs” and “psychosocial needs” in relation to the academic motivation of students in post-secondary education. The study determined that to achieve the most motivation to achieve high academic standing in university one must find their true “identity”. The findings of this article are very relatable and adoptable, as the subjects of the study are first year university students who are in the same situation as majority of the class. Although the study does focus more on identity formation leading to greater academic motivation, it is also important for us to take note of the psychological needs which too play an important role in academic motivation. Especially, competence, which explains that our understanding of a given concept or task will determine out delivery of it, consequently resulting in our motivation to continue performing it.

Levin, Joel R., Bruce K. Britton, and Abraham Tesser. 1991. "Effects of Time-Management Practices on College Grades." Journal of Educational Psychology. September 1991. Accessed November 27th, 2015.

This study attempted to prove the hypothesis that the GPA of college students would be determined by a student’s time management patterns. After comparing the students SAT scores and their GPA after a few years of college, the authors determined that a student’s GPA was in fact affected by time management patterns and not a students score on the SAT. These findings related to time management, specifically he positive association between effective time management and the achievement of higher academic standing is beneficial for the class to internalize. The skill of time management, however, is also a skill which can be used in everyday life after graduation – I believe it is one of the concepts learned by students from the unwritten curriculum.

Robst, John. "Career Mobility, Job Match, and Overeducation." Eastern Economic Journal. 1995. Accessed November 27th, 2015.

This article investigates and identifies reasons for worker over education in the workforce. It defines an over educated employee as a worker who’s “education is greater than the job typically requires”. The author then investigates two hypotheses for why workers may be working in fields that require less qualifications than they have; the first thought states that overqualified workers are not willing to put in the effort to find a profession with their degree and find lower levels of employment as it is easier and compensating, the second thought states these graduates are working in low level requirement jobs as a stepping stone in their professional journey (as a pre-requisite, or a experience in their given field). The strength of this study lay in the extensive data provided to support each hypothesis. I found that their results showed a greater over education in workers in certain professions and under education in others. Knowing this, being a first year student and having to soon decide my choice of major, it is good to be aware of what professions are generally occupied by more academics than the job entails.

Stuart. L., Dahm. E.”21st Century Skils for 21st Century Jobs”. Federal Publications. January 1st, 1999. Accessed November 27th, 2015.

This article discusses the skill set which workers entering the workforce in the 21st century must possess in order to compete with more senior employees who are already established and experienced. Outlining many skills for specific tasks and professions, the author notes that new workers will be required to complete more schooling in order to gain the skills for new jobs and to have the ability to adapt to the constantly changing workforce. Another key quality important for 21st century employees to possess is teamwork as well as autonomy, these will in turn have a lifelong effect on their economic success as well as help build our economy. I found this article extremely relevant for myself, as within the next few years I along with the rest of the class of 2019 will be entering the workforce seeking employment in a broad variety of professions. However, having read this article and learning about the skills and qualities that are important to today’s employers is extremely beneficial, as it is something I can build on and enhance these skills making myself a more suitable candidate for future employment.


Subtopic 1 - Motivation and its effects of grades

Subtopic 2 - Time Management


Subtopic 1 -over education in the workforce following graduation

Subtopic 2– 21st Century job skills